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FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY - IMP HIGH YIELD FULLY COVERED
Forensic medicine: is the application of medical and paramedical knowledge in the administration of law and justice. Legal medicine and state medicine are other names for it.
Medical jurisprudence: deals with the legal rights, privileges, duties and obligations of medical
Points to remember
1. Pin – point pupils = Opium
2. Dilatation of pupils = Dhatura, Cyanide
3. Constriction of pupils = Opium, phenol, organo-phosphorus, physostigmine,
4. Cumulative poisons are: Barbiturates, and methyl alcohol
5. Habit forming poisons are: Caffeine and Nicotine.
6. Addiction drugs are: Alcohol, Barbiturates, Coccaine, Cannabis, Chloral hydrate,
7. Hemodialysis is good value in: Salicylate, methanol, barbiturate, and aspirin
(except kerosene oil and diazephem)
8. 1st sign of intra-uterine death: Gas shadow in aorta (as early as 12 hours).
9. Increased anion gap is seen in Salicylate poisoning, lactic acidosis, starvation.
10. Ideal suicide poison = Cyanide
11. Ideal homicide poison = Thallium, fluoride compounds.
12. Commonly used homicidal poisons: Arsenic, aconite
13. Commonly used suicidal poisons: Endrine, Opium, Barbiturates, Organophosphorus
14. Poison resembling cholera = Arsenic
15. Poison resembling tetanus = Strychnine
16. Poison resembling natural death = Thallium
17. Poison resembling fading measles = Arsenic
18. Poison resembling thyrotoxicosis = Bi-nitro compounds.
Tests for detecting poisons:
Arsenic = Marsh’s test, Reinsch’s test
Opium = Marquis test
Alcohol = Mc’evan’s test
Datura = Mydriatic test
Phenol = Green urine.
IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER
1 The Percentage of blood alcohol in the stage of "dead drunk" is 0.5%.
2 Pisiform gets ossified by 12 yrs of age.
3 By 14 yrs. patella gets ossified.
4 Anterior fontanelle closes by 18 months of age.
5 The height of a child is double of birth height by 4 years of age,
6 Under IPC, a person below 7 years is not criminally responsible.
7 Fatal period of Datura poisoning is 24 hours.
8 In India, rigor mortis sets within 1-2 hours.
9 While dispatching blood and urine for chemical analysis, sodium fluoride is added
as preservative in concentration of 50 mg/10ml.
10 Critical level of alcohol in blood is 0.15%.
11 The minimum age for giving consent for surgery is 18 years.
12 In fractured ends of bone, soft provisional callus is formed by 15 hours.
13 The minimum time required for adipocere formation in a dead body is 21 days.
14 Indian Medical Council Act was enacted in 1956.
15 Mental retardation is I.Q. Below 70.
16 Ratio between ethyl alcohol in blood to urine is 1:1.33
17 Gas rigidity appears after 72 hours.
18 Marbling is noticed by 36 hours.
19 Full development of rigor mortis takes about 12 hours.
20 In exhumation, 6-7 samples of earth are collected.
21 Intercourse with wife below 15 years of age is considerable rape.
22 Fatal period of aconite isusually 1-5 hours.
23 Cooling of body is gradual upto 1-3 hours.
24 Hypostasis is mottled within first 3 hours of death.
25 Killing range of a militry rifle is 3000 yards.
26 Juvenile offender is a person under 16 years
27 The dispersion of pellets is seen usually at distance beyond 10 feet.
28 In a gunshot wound, the presence of singeing of hair or charring of skin denotes a fire up to 18 inches.
29 Dispersion of pellets in shotgun injury is calculated as dispersion in inches = 1.5
times the dispersion in yards.
30 An infant born before 210 days is not legally considered capable of maintaining a
31 A bruise showing bluish black discolouration is 4 days old.
32 The upper limit of safety for carbon monoxide in air is 0.01%.
33 Rh positivity in India is 93%.
34 In an abrasion, the scab usually dries and falls between 4-6 days.
35 Fatal dose of opium is 2 gm.
36 The range of an air rifle is about 90 yards.
37 Mixed dentition is seen in children between 6-12 years of age.
38 Basisphenoid unites the basi-occiput at the age to 22 years.
39 First permanent molar appears at age of 6-7 years.
40 Judicial first class Magistrate can pass a sentence of imprisonment upto 3 years.
41 Age of maturity for those under court of wards is 21 years. In India, sexual
maturity is gained at 14 years of age.
42 The degree of accuracy in determining sex from long bones is 80%.
43 Fatal period of sulphuric acid poisoning is 18-24 hours.
44 Multiplying factors for estimating stature from humerus and femur in males are 5-5.3 and 3.6-3.8 respectively.
45 Colliquative liquefaction is seen within 1 week after death.
46 A contusion assumes green colour by 6 days.
47 Marriage age for boys and girls are 21 years and 18 years respectively.
48 Internal organs take 24 hours to cool. A person becomes major at the age of 18
years. Eruption of temporary teeth is completed by 2 to 2.5 years.
49 Foetal parts can be detected on plain X-ray usually by 16 weeks.
50 Child below 12 years is not required to take an oath.
51 Xiphoid process unites with sternum at age of 40 years.
52 Cranial capacity is 10% less in females.
53 Nuclear features persist in decomposition for a period of 2-3 years.
54 Precipitin test is positive to be opium in dead body upto 10 years.
55 After death, benzidine test is positive upto 150 years. Bones begin to decompose
after death in 3-10 years.
56 Less than 7 aminoacids in bone suggest age of bone after death as more than 100 years. The rate of cooling of body in first 6 hours is 2.5°F and in next 6 hours as1.5"-2.0cF. Victim of drowning in a state of suspended animation can be revived as long as 10-20 minutes.
57 Centre of ossification for pisiform bone appears at an age of 10-12 years.
58 The floatation time in summer for a dead body after drowning is one day.
59 The age of 15 years old female is best determined by the radiography of upper
end of radius and ulna.
60 Maggots in a dead body do not appear before 48 hours.
61 Hairs become loose after 72 hours of death.
62 Epiphyseal union of sternal end of clavicle occurs at age of 22 years.
63 Washer woman's hands and feet usually occur within 12-18 hours.
64 Saponification in drowning occurs in about 5 weeks.
65 Death ensues in about 5 mts. of complete submersion.
66 By ABO.RH, MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%.
67 Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years of age.
Gustafson's method for estimation age of adult over 21 years.
68 In poisoning by salicylates, the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours.
69 The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum 12 years.
70 If a person is absent from his usual haunts, and has not been heard for 7 hears,
he is presumed to be dead.
71 Infanticide means unlawful destruction of child below 1 year of age.
72 By ABO, Rh, MN systems the exclusion of Paternity is about 50%
73 Estimation of Age from eruption of teeth is possible upto 17 to 21 years of age
74 In poisoning by salicylates, the Gastric lavage is useful upto 24 hours
75 The age of consent for medical examination in cases of rape is minimum 12 years
76 In sin of Gomorrah, buccal swabs are useful upto 9 hours
77In most countries, breath alcohol concentration 35 mg/100 ml is considered an
offence After absorption, the ratio of alcohol in blood and urine is constant and is
1:1.31 Histologically, reticulum fibres in an abrasion are seen on 8 days
78 Widmark's formula for urine analysis of alcohol is 3/4 prq
79 Pancreas constitute 0.1% of body weight
80 Punishment for false evidence is given under section 193 of IPC
81 Length of a female larynx is about 3.8 cm
82 Calcification of third molar begins at 8-10 years.
83 Lip prints on cheiloscopy are divided into 8 patterns
84 ?gm tablet of aluminium phosphide is able to liberate 1.0 gm
85 The diameter of "human hair at 15 years of age is 0.053 ram *
86 Alcohol gaze nystagmus is produced at an average blood levels of 80 mg%
87 The residual alcohol in mouth takes about 20 min to disappear and within this
period breath analyser test may be false positive
88 Skeletal muscles constitute about 29% of body weight
89 Term 'under the influence' of alcohol is used when blood concentration is 80-
90 Statutory rape is rape under 15 years of age
91 Weight for occluding internal jugular vein hanging is 2 kg
92 Majority of deaths due to Aluminium phosphide occurs in within 24 hours
93 During sleep, rectal temperature is 0.5-1.0°C lower
94 Drowned body floats in about 12-18 hours in summer S
95 Bones constitute about 12% of body weight
96 Absence of III molar tooth indicates that the person is definitely under the age of
97 In a dead body, maggots in rainy day are seen in 6 hours.
98 Arsenic, Aconite and Dhatura are generally used as homicidal poisons.
99 Ricin is the active principle of croton oil seed.
100 Abrin is the active principle of abrus precatorius.
101 Soneryl is a coloured babriturate.
102 Breath alcohol can be measured by Alcometer or Drunkometer.
103 The fatal dose of Dhatura is about one grain.
104 Physostigmine can be regarded as the specific antidote of Dhatura.
105 Amygdaline is the glucosides of vegetable origin found in cyanides.
106 The process of putrefaction can be retarded by carbon monoxide gas.
107 Euthanasia means "Mercy killing".
108 Joule burn is seen in electrocution.
109 Amyl nitrate is an antidote for poisoning due to hydrocyanic acid.
110 Olive green discoloration of urine on exposure to air is seen in poisoning due to
111 Overlying is a type of smothering.
112 Optic atrophy is the characteristic feature of poisoning by methyl alcohol.
113 Dryness of mouth, dilated pupils and delirium are symptoms of Dhatura poisoning.
114 The first permanent tooth to erupt is first molar.
115 Dying declaration can be recorded by a medical officer.
116 Presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth and nostrils is seen in drowning.
117 Privation of any member of joint is a grievous hurt.
118 Pugilistic attitude is seen in burn death due to coagulation of proteins.
119 Dying declaration should be recorded by Magistrate.
120 Nalorphine is an antidote for morphine.
121 Locard's principle states that every contact leaves a trace.
122 The strongest corrosive poison is sulphuric acid.
123 Arborescent markings are seen in lightening.
124 Before performing Postmortem examination, body should be identified by
125 Warrant case means a case relating to an offence punishbale with death,
imprisonment for life or for a term exceeding two years.
126 In civil cases, a reasonable sum for travelling expenses is generally tendered
when the summons is served. This is known as conduct money. It is paid by the
party that has called his as a witness.
127 Hair cells are of special interest in cell sexing since both Barr body and Y
chromosome can be demonstrated.
128 Nails, hairs and long bones are preserved in cases of chronic arsenic poisoning.
129 Postmortem fibrinous clots in heart are known as "Cardiac polyp".
130 The surest sign of death is putrefaction.
131 The rigor mortis start first at upper eye-lids.
132 Dribbling of saliva from the angle of the mouth is generally considered as the
surest sign of hanging.
133 Presence of soot in respiratory tract is the surest sign of burn.
134 Strong sulphuric acid when thrown on the face of a person is known as "Vitreol
135 Black gun powder consists of potassium nitrate, sulphur, and charcoal.
136 Nitrocellulose or Nitroglycerine is used as a smokeless gun powder.
137 Richochette bullet is one which strikes any other surface before striking the
138 The pulmonary lesion in the injury of air blast is called "Blast lung".
139 Loss of virginity is called defloration.
140 The Buccal coitus is called "Sin of Gomorrah".
141 The commission of sexual assalut upon a dead body is called "Necrophily".
142 "Testamentary capcity" is the capacity of a person to make a valid will.
143 Malpraxis is defined as want of reasonable skill and or willful negligence on the
part of doctor resulting in deterioration of patients' health or his death.
144 Copper sulphate is used as an antidote to phsophorus.
145 'Gyroget' are cartridges or miniature rockets driven by solid fuel, which produces
considerable heat and smokeless gas on burning.
146 Forensic means courts of law.
147 Deposition means a statement on oath made by a witness in a judicial proceeding.
It is taken down in writing and signed by the witness and magistrate.
148 Document means any matter expressed or described upon any substance by
means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of these means.
Evidence includes all legal means which help to prove or disprove any matter of
fat, the truth of which is submitted to judicial investigation. It can be oral (direct,
indirect or hearsay), documentary & circumstantial.
150 Hurt is defined as bodily pain, disease or infirmity caused to any person.
151 Injury includes every inquiry other than a trial, conducted by a Magistrate or
152Investigation includes all the proceedings for the collection of evidence conducted by a Police officer or by any person other than a magistrate who is authorised by a magistrate on his behalf.
153 Jury means a body of persons sworn to render verdict in a court of justice. It is
composed of uneven number and not less than 7 and more than 9 persons.
154 Metropolitan area means any area in the state comprising a city or a town whose
population exceeds one millin.
155 Offence means any act of omission made punishable by law for the time being in force.
156 Perjury means wilful utterance of falsehood under oath.
157 Plantiff is one who brings an action in a court of law.
158 Summons case means a case relating to an offence punishable with imprisonment
for a term not exceeding two years
159 Testimony means the evidence, oral or written, of a witness under under oath.
160 Warrant means a written authority under "hand and seal". It is used for the arrest
of persons or for their forcible production in a court of law
161 Traumatic rupture of hymen is seen on posterolateral aspect.
162 Taylor gave a formula on rate of decomposition of dead body in air, water and
163 Most reliable method of determining personal identity is Dactylography.
164 Contre-Coupe injury is seen in head injury.
165 Strychnine acts on anterior horn cells.
166 Last organ to putrefy in mate is prostate whereas in female it is ungravid uteus.
167 In Carboluria, urine turns green on exposure to air.
168 Cyanide poisoning produces cherry red colour.
169 McEwen's sign is seen in alcoholism.
170 Cutis anserina is seen in drowning.
171 Shaking palsy or 'mad Hatters' is seen with mercury poisoning.
172 Poison which can be detected in burnt bodies in arsenic.
173 Cepahlic index helps in identification of race.
174 Tentative cuts are seen in suicides.
175 Pugilistic attitude is seen in antemortem or postmortem burns.
176 Death in police custody is investigated by Magistrate.
177 Precipitin test is used to identify human blood in stains.
178 Gelsimium is a spinal cord poison.
179 Desferroxamine is antidote used in iron poisoning.
180 Spalding's sign is seen in maceration.
181 Impotence is inability to perform the sexual act.
182 Smack is crude form of heroin.
183 Ganja is obtained from flowering tops.
184 Stomach may be greenish in poisoning due to nitric acid.
185 Lines of Zahn are present in antemortem clots.
186 Conium is a peripheral poison.
187 Emphysema aqueosum is seen in wet drowning.
188 Formication (Magnan's symptom) is seen in cocaine dependence.
189 Rigor mortis is simulated by cadaveric spasm.
190 Thorn apple is Datura stramonium.
191 Dirt collar is seen in fire arm entry wound.
192 Apoplexy is cerebral congestion.
193 Feminine of impotence is frigidity.
194 In oath taking, a medical man does not require to keep his hands on a holy book.
195 Thanatology is science that deals with death.
196 Number of hours since death is calculated by multiplying the fall in rectal
temperature with 0.67.
197 Dichotomy is related to splitting of fees.
198 Fracture of hyoid bone in a case of strangulation is commonly seen in the greater horn.
199 In a fresh case of death due to ventricular fibrillation, heart at postmortem will be flabby.
200 Punctate basophilia is seen in lead poisoning.
201 Felony is a category of rape, murder or burglary.
202 Testamentary capacity is related to will.
203 McNaughten was an accused.
204 Accepted procedure of first aid for cafe coronary is Heimlich manoeuvre.
205 Mode of death from obstruction of air passages from within is anoxic anoxia.
206 Brain may be preserved in normal saline or rectified spirit.
207 CSF is preserved in poisoning due to alcohol.
208 Long bones are preserved inpoisoning due to arsenic, lead or antimony.
209 Exhumation is usually done in the early morning.
210 In India, Exhumation is done for Mohammadans and Christians.
211 Macroscopically and microscopically, there will not be any change to the heart in case of myocardial infarction death up to 8 hours.
212 Foamy liver is due to bubbing up of gas.
213 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase level is low in CML.
214 The essential lesion of coronary atherosclerosis is found in intima.
215 The classical site of ischaemic colitis is splenic flexure.
216 The rigor mortis disappears in the order of eyelids, neck, thorax, lower lumbs (in the order of appearance).
217 Primary relaxation is stage of somatic death.
218 After death, the onset of putrefaction is in the stage of secondary relaxation.
219 Species of origin of blood is determined by precipitin test.
220 It is a criminal offence in India, for a person to drive a motor vehicle after
221 Dum dum bullet is so called because tip is chiselled off.
222 Cyanides mainly affect Cytochrome oxidase.
223 In electrocution, death is most often due to ventricular fibrillation.
224 Le facies sympathique is seen in hanging.
225 The characteristic sign of Korsakoff psychosis is amnesia.
226 Aconite is most commonly used as a homicidal poison.
227 Alcohol is maximally absorbed from small intestine.
228 Absolute alcohol has 99.95% alcohol.
229 Visceras obtained from a body due to death from alcoholic intoxication are
preserved is suprasaturated saline.
230 In strychnine poisoning, rigor mortis sets in early and lasts shortly.
231 A short barreled rifle is called carbine.
232 The most fragile bone in skull to get fractured is temporal
233 The most common type of skull fracture is fissure.
234 Rigor mortis sets early in cases with deaths due to apoplexy.
235 In cadaveric spasm, stage of primary relaxation is missing.
236 Heat stiffening is due to exposure of body to temperature above 75°C.
237 The presence of blackening, tatooing and scortching in a shotgun injury indicates distance of fire upto 3 feet.
238 Lucid interval is seen in extradural haemorrhage and insanity.
239 In forgeries, oxalic acid is used as ink remover solution.
240 Pond fracture (of skull) is found in children.
241 Blasting effect is usually seen in a firearm injury from point blank range.
242 Olive oil is used in stomach wash in carbolic acid poisoning.
243 Fracture of middle cranial fossa causes injury to VII and VIII cranial nerves.
244 Histologically amyloid deposits always begin intercellularly.
245 Ischiopubic index is significantly more in females.
246 Unconsciousness occurs immediately after head injury due to concussion.
247 A female has more sternal index, ischiopubic index and sciatic notch index.
248 Ewings postulates refer to accidents as a cause of death.
249 Loss of muscular coordination and staggering gait are seen in patient with blood alcohol concentration of 150-300
250 Dinitro compounds poisoning resembles thyrotoxicosis.
251 Aconite is known as Sweet poison.
252 CuSO4 is antidote of Phosphorus.
253 Foder's test compares weight of lungs to the body.
254 Diaphanus test denotes that after death, finger webs lose their lusture.
255 Gaping of deep incised wound is dependent on cleavage lines of Langer.
256 When a patient is injured or dies due to some unintentional act during treatment
by a doctor or agent of the doctor or known as therapeutic misadventure.
257 Glass blowers shakes are seen with poisoning due to mercury.
258 'Run amok' is sometimes seen with cannabis.
259 Abrus is viper-like poison.
260 Bluish green hypostasis is seen in H2S poisoning
261 Marquis test is used in opium poisoning.
262 Datura is also known as 'Road poison'.
263 Marsh's test and Reinsch test are used in arsenic poisoning.
264 Exposure to nickel causes carcinoma nasopharynx.
265 Best test for seminal stain is Florence test.
266 Fall of a tooth is grievous injury.
267 To conduct a postmortem, an authorisation letter is necessary from police officer,magistrate and coroner.
268 A consent is invalid of obtained from a person who is intoxicated, insane or under threat.
269 In India, exhumation has no time limit.
270 Colour changes of putrefaction are first observed in iliac fossa.
271 Dipsomania is seen with alcohol.
272 Subpoena is a seen kind of document.
273 In exhumated bodies, the poison likely to be detected most significantly is arsenic.
274 Postmortem in a newborn is done by opening first the abdominal cavity.
275 Tests for circulation are Magnus, Diaphanous and Icard's.
276 Compressed air is used to fire lead slugs in air rifle.
277 Most important sign of defloration is ruptured hymen.
278 Cafe coronary occurs when a person is intoxicated.
279 Overlying is a type of smothering.
280 Death in fresh water in comparison to salt water is earlier.
281 Bevelling of inner table of skull is seen in fire arm entry wound.
282 In burking, cause of death is traumatic asphyxia.
283 Bansdola is a form of homicidal strangulation.
284 Convincing proof of burial alive is sand in trachea and bronchi.
285 In India. Coroner's courts are held in Bombay.
286 Corpus delict deals with body of crime.
287 Burking is a name derived from person.
288 Bullet is picked up with hands.
289 The process which causes the drying up of tissues and internal viscera to a
sufficient degree to halt putrefaction is called
291 The most important cause of temporary impotence is fear.
292 Minimum quantity of blood required to be preserved to mineral poisoning.
293 Superimposition is technique most useful for identification from skull.
294 Brown atrophy of heart is seen in starvation deaths.
295 Most common type of finger impression is loop.
296 Lead poisoning is common in children.
297 Presence of alveolar duct membrane in foetal autopsies in indicative of live birth.
298 The science of finger print was first demonstrated by Francis.
299 Karl Pearson formula is used to calculate stature of the individual from long bones.
300 Filigree burns are due to lightening.
301 The commonest homicidal poison used in India is Arsenic.
302 BAL is contraindicated in liver damage.
303 KCN is ineffective as a poison if kept for long time, patient takes excess of
carbohydrate or suffers from achlorhydria.
304 Inquiry into circumstances of death is called inquest report.
305 Non-poisonous pure metals are mercury, copper and lead.
306 Phossy Jaw is produced by chronic white phosphorus poisoning.
307 Ptysalism is seen in copper poisoning.
308 Chloral hydrate is also called knockout drops or Micky Finn.
309 Chromodacryorrhoea is sometimes preapilated by organophosphorus
310 Rape is a cognizable offence.
311 To make a positive identification with the help of a partial finger print, the points of similarity should be at least 16.
312 The most striking symptoms of pregnancy is cessation of menstruation.
313 The most reliable chemical test for blood is benzidine test.
The position colour of tests for blood are —Benzidine test (Blue), Guiacum test
(deep blue), Kastle Meyer test, Leucomalachite test (Peacock blue), Haemin
Crystal (dark brown).
315 Takayama reagent is used in haemochromogen test.
316 Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin.
317 Term immerssion foot is used for cases with frost bite.
318 Boxer's attitude is seen in persons dying of burns.
319 III and IV degree of burns are most painful. •
320 Smokeless gun powder is composed of nitrocellulose.
321 Gunshot wound is a type of perforated wound.
322 Supreme Court is purely an appellate Court.
323 Police inquest can be done by a person not below the rank of sub-inspector.
324 Haemodilution occurs in fresh water drowning.
325 In chronic mercury poisoning, face is first affected.
326 Wrist drop and foot drop may be seen in poisoning with lead.
327 After taking cyanide, patient first feels numbness in extremities.
328 Nux vomica seeds contain 2 alkaloids, strychnine and brucine.
329 Lynching is a form of homicidal hanging.
330 'Arrow poison' is nux vomical (also called Kuchila).
331 Commonest industrial metal poisoning is by lead.
332 Haemorrhagic spots are found in poisoning by thallium.
333 Amyl nitrate is antidote of cocaine poisoning.
334 In sea water drowning, there is steep rise in Na+ and Mg++.
335 Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death.
336 Least common type of finger prints is composite.
337 Preauricular sulcus is useful for identification of sex.
338 Seminal emission is common in hanging.
339 In methyl alcohol poisoning treatment recommended is ethyl alcohol and sodium bicarbonate.
340 The presence of fine white leathery froth in mouth indicates drowning.
341 Lower end of femur can help to determine the age.
342 Resipsa Loquitur means evidence speaks for itself.
343 Resorption elution technique is used for detection of blood stains.
344 In females, obturator foramen is triangular shaped.
345 Absorption of lead is mainly through lung.
346 Incised like lacerated wound appears at forehead.
347Medical jurisprudence is the subject concerned with knowledge of law in relation to the practice of medicine. In a nutshell, it deals with legal aspects of medical practice.
348 Crime means a social harm which has been defined and made punishable by law.
349 No conduct money is paid in criminal cases, however, provision is made by the
Govt under sec. 312 Cr PC for payment of reasonable expenses of an expert
witness attending before any criminal court.
350 The body is exhumed only when there is a written order issued by 1st class Chief Judicial or Executive magistrate or the Coroner. There is not time limit for
exhumation in India.
351 Puterfaction is the surest sign of death. The earliest sign is manifested as greenish discoluration in the right ilic fossa.
352 Heat stiffening is due to coagulation of albumin and muscle proteins.
353 Cold stiffening is due to solidfication of fats when body is exposed to very low
354 Presence of blood stained froth in the air passage and diatoms in internal visceras
and bone marrow is considered surest sign of drowning.
355 The chief post mortem finding in case of starvation is distended gall bladder.
356 Heat exhaustion is caused by dehydration and salt deficiency.
357 Presence of soot in the respiratory passage is the surest sign of ante-mortem
358 Diatoms resist putrefaction.
359 About 1900 cals is the minimum daily dieteic requirement below which
manifestations of starvation appear.
360 For estimating surface area in burnt patient "Wallace's Rule of Nine" has been
361 The Taser Gun is a device for immoblizing vicitims by using electric current
without causing death or serious injury.
362 In drowning, Paltauf 's haemorrhages are seen subpleurally in the lungs
363 Molecular death is more significant medico-legally than somatic death.
364 Semen contains more than double quantity of CPK than any other body fluid.
Levels over 400 units are almost diagnostic. The enzyme is stable and can be
demonstrated as late as 6 months after soiling.
365 Hanging is one of the common forms of suicide among men.
366 Judicial hanging is the official method of execution of death sentence. The
dislocation often takes place between the 2nd & 3rd cervical vertebra.
367 Dribbling of saliva is the vital sign of ante-mortem hanging and is due to
stimulation of salivary glands by ligature.
368 Lynching is homicidal hanging where several persons acting jointly overpower an individual and hang him by means of a rope to a tree or like object.
369 Strangulation is almost always homicidal.
370 In strangulation, ligature completely encricles the neck horizontally below thyroid cartilage. Injury to carotid arteries common. Bleeding from nose, mouth and ears.Emphysematous patches on lungs are commonly seen during postmortem
examination, fracture of hyoid bone commonly occurs in throttling (near the
371 Smothering is a form of asphyxia caused by mechanical occlusion of the external air passages viz. the nose and the mouth by hands, cloth or any other material.
372 Overylaying or compression suffocation results due to compression of the chest so as to prevent breathing. It is common method of infanticide.
373 Burking is a method of homicidal smothering and traumatic asphyxia.
374 Drowning is a form of asphyxia due to aspiration of fluid into air passage, caused by submersion in water or other fluid.
375 Death ensues rapidly in fresh water than in salt water or sea water.
376 The fine froth at the mouth and nose in pathognomonic of drowning.
377Cutis anserina or goose skin has no value as a diagnostic sign of death from
drowning. Diatoms test is negative in dead bodies thrown in water or in dry
378 In a typical case of drowning, diatoms are found in brains and bone marrow.
379 Drowning is one of the commonest form of suicide amongst females.
380 Buccal coitus is Sin of Gomorrah.
381 Strychnine poisoning resembles tetanus / epilepsy / hysteria.
382 Thallium resembles natural death.
383 Exhumation is done: In presence of police officer. In the supervision of Medical
Officer. Written order from 1st class Magistrate or coroner.
384 Most common mode of death in strangulation is Asphyxia.
385 The common mode of choking is Accidental.
386 Caffey syndrome is Battered baby syndrome.
387 In judicial hanging, fracture/dislocation of the vertebrae at the level of C3 and C4 vertebra.
388 In Asphyxia, the place where the Tardieu spots occur in lung is interlobar fissures.Forensic thanatology deals with Medicolegal study of death.
389 In dental fluorosis, the teeth are characterised by mottled enamel.
390 Wreden's test—for deleting the presence of air in middle ear for determining live birth or dead foetus.
391 The rules for criminal responsibility of Insane:
392 Mc Naughten's rule
393 Durham's rule
394 Current's rule
395 Blood group of Parents, Child group possible:
396 § OxO i.e 00x00 = 0
397 § A x B i.e OA x OB = O, A, B, AB. All are possible
398 § OxA i.e OOxOA = O, A.
399 Macerated body of a foetus indicates—dead-born.
400 Cadaveric spasm (Instantaneous rigor) affects voluntary muscles only.
401 The most dependent means of identification of persons is finger prints.
402 If a person survives after giving dying declaration, it can be used as corroborative evidence.
403 Paraffin test or dermal nitrate test detects Gunpowder residue on hands.
404 Knockout agents: Chloral hydrate, Potassium bromide
405 Saturday night paralysis due to pressure on the Radial nerve.
406 Leading questions are permissible in cross-examination.
407 Preservation used to preserve the urine for chemical analysis is Thymol crystals.
408 In Arsenic poisoning, putrefaction is delayed.
409 Arsenic is employed for embalming of Cadaver.
410 Subendocardial haemorrhages in Arsenic poisoning.
411 The poison which is found in maximum quantities in various organs in Postmortem is —Arsenic.
412 Poisoning resembling fading measles — Arsenic.
413 Optic atrophy occurs in Methyl Alcohol poisoning.
414 Minimum Alcohol consumed by person, estimated by — Widmarks formula.
415 Widmark's formula, to determine — Quantity of Alcohol consumed.
416 The preservative used for viscera in Alcohol poisoning—Saturated sodium chloride solution.
417 Barbiturates increase the toxicity of Alcohol by Synergism.
418 Methylated spirit contains—95% Rectified spirit and 5% Methyl alcohol.
419 The common preservative for viscera—Rectified spirit
420 The organs that resist putrefaction—uterus (Non pregnant); Prostate.
421 The poisons which Resist putrefaction—Arsenic, Edrin, Datura, Strychnine.
422 Thick and leathery stomach wall in —Phenol poisoning.
423 Ochronosis (Pigmentation of skin and cartilages) in — Phenol poisoning.
424 In Phenol poisoning —Urine is green coloured.
425 Delicate and reliable test for Blood stains—Takayama's test (Hemochromogen
426 Teichman test for blood stains is —Haemin Crystal test.
427 Extremely delicate test for Blood stains—Phenophthalein test (Kastle-Mayer test).
428 The best test for Blood stains—Chromatography absorption spectroscopy.
429 Leukomalachite green test is a chemical test for —Blood.
430 In severe burns, remnant indicative of Male sex—Inguinal canal.
431 Carbonaceous soot particles in Respiratory tract suggesive of—Antemortem burns.
432 Lichetenberg's flowers or filigree burns or Arborescent markings is seen in
433 In chemical burns by Corrosives—Vesication does not occur.
434 Paltauf's haemorrhages (usually in lower lobes of lungs) in —Drowning.
435 Immersion syndrome is due to—Vagal inhibition
436 Froth may be absent in case of death due to — Dry drowning.
437 The specimen used for Diatom's test—Sternal bone marrow.
438 Salt water drowning —Increased.
439 Postmortem staining:
440 Usually mistaken for —Contusion.
441 Can occur before death in —Cholera.
442 § Hypostasis or cadaveric lividity — Postmortem staining.
443 § Purple colour in —Asphyxia.
444 § Blue green colur in —Hydrogen sulphide poisoning.
445 Blue vitreol—Copper sulfate.
446 Verdigris—Copper subacetate.
447 Green line on the gums in —Copper poisoning.
448 Most potent of all preparations of cannabis is —Charas.
449 Stomach wash in opium poisoning, done with —Potassium permanganate.
450 In opium poisoning, there is loss of all secretions except sweat.
451 In opium poisoning, atropine is contraindicated.
452 Methaemoglobinaemia is caused by poisoning due to Nitrates.
453 Antidote used in common types of poisonous shakes, in India includes polyvalent
454 Viperbite like poison—Abrus.
455 Sea snake venom—Myotoxic.
456 Diwali poisons are —Mercury, phosphorous.
457 Nephrotoxic poisons—Phenol, Oxalicacid, Mercury.
458 Blotting paper like stomach in sulphuric acid poisoning.
459 Sodium nitrate looks and tastes like common salt.
460 Tingling of skin and tongue by Aconite poisoning.
461 Tannic acid precipitates alkaloids.
462 Physiological antidote produce symptoms opposite to those of poison is:
464 Cyanide—Amyl nitrite
466 In phosphorous poisoning, avoid oil and fats as they increase absorption.
467 In Endrin poisoning, the pupils are dilated.
468 Albumin helps to precipitate in Mercury poisoning.
469 Lead poisoning, causes constipation.
470 In Potassium permanganate poisoning, lesions resemble Tertiary syphilis.
471 Symptoms of Abrus precautorius poisoning resemble viperine snake bite.
472 Cocaine acts as an Aphrodisiac.
473 Charas is known as Hashish.
474 In treatment of Nuxvomica poisoning, most important is I.V. injection of
475 Pupils show alternate contraction and dilatation in Aconite poisoning.
476 Charcoal acts as a mechanical Antidote.
477 Potassium ferrocyanide solution is used as gastric lavage solution of poisoning due to copper sulphate.
478 Skin and mucous membranes are colored yellow in poisoning due to nitric acid.
479 Delayed poisoning by oxalic acid is characterised by —Uraemia.
480 Large amount of water is contraindicated in —Oxalic acid poisoning.
481 Hypocalcemia can occur in —Oxalic acid poisoning.
482 Hypocalcemia can occur in —Oxalic acid poisoning.
483 Oxalic acid resembles—Magnesium sulfate.
484 Coffee ground vomitus is seen in Oxalic acid poisoning.
485 Datura seeds look like—Brinjal seeds capsicum seeds or Tomato seeds.
486 Physiological antidote for Datura poisoning—Pilocarpine
487 Stupefying poison—Datura.
488 Road poison—Datura.
489 If a person survives after giving dying declaration, it can be used as corroborative evidence
490 Arsenic is employed for embalming of Cadaver
491 Subendocardial haemorrhages are seen in Arsenic poisoning
492 The poison which is found in maximum quantities in various organs in Postmortem is - Arsenic
493 Poisoning resembling fading measles - Arsenic
494 The preservative used for viscera in Alcohol poisoning - Saturated sodium chloride solution
495 Barbiturates increase the toxicity of Alcohol by Synergism
496 Methylated spirit contains 95% Rectified spirit and 5% Methyl alcohol
497 The poisons which Resist putrefaction are— Arsenic, Edrin, Datura, Strychnine
498 Thick and leathery stomach wall is seen in Phenol poisoning
499 Ochronosis (Pigmentation of skin and cartilages) is seen in Phenol poisoning
500 Extremely delicate test for Blood stains - Phenophthalein test ('Kastle-Mayer test).
501 The best test for Blood stains is Chromatography absorption spectroscopy
502 In severe burns, remnant indicative of Male sex is inguinal canal
503 Lichetenberg's flowers or filigree burns or Arborescent markings are seen in
504 In chemical burns by Corrosives Vesication does not occur
505 Immersion syndrome is due to Dry drowning
506 Rule of House is used for calculating age of the fetus-
507 PM staining usually mistaken for -Contusion
508 PM staining can occur before death in - Cholera
509 Most potent of ail preparations of cannabis is Charas
510 Amenorrhoea and infertility can occur in Chronic lead poisoning
years, he is presumed to be dead
512 In opium poisoning there is loss of all secretions except sweat
513 In opium poisoning, atropine is contraindicated
514 Strongest corrosive poison is sulphuric acid
515 Antidote used in common types of poisonous snakes in India includes polyvalent
516 Viperbite like poison is Abrus
517 Sea snake venom is Myotoxic
518 Diwali poisons are - Mercury, phosphorus
519 Blotting paper like stomach is seen in sulphuric acid poisoning
520 Spinal poisoning may be mistaken commonly for Tetanus
521 Sodium nitrate looks and tastes like common salt
522 Tingling of skin and tongue is seen in Aconite poisoning
523 In phosphorous poisoning, avoid oil and fats as they increase absorption
524 In Endrin poisoning, the pupils are dilated
525 Albumin helps to precipitate poison in Mercury poisoning
526 Lead poisoning causes constipation
527 In Potassium permanganate poisoning, lesions resemble Tertiary syphilis
528 Cocaine acts as an Aphrodisiac
529 In treatment of Nux vomica poisoning, most important is I.V. injection
530 Pupils show alternate contraction and dilatation in Aconite poisoning
531 Charcoal acts as a mechanical antidote.
532 Delayed poisoning by oxalic acid is characterised by Uraemia Large amount of
water is contraindicated in Oxalic acid poisoning Hypocalcemia can occur in Oxalic
533 Coffee ground vomitus is seen in Oxalic acid poisoning
534 Datura seeds look like- Brinjal seeds, capsicum seeds or Tomato seed
535 Antidote for chlorpyriphos poisoning is. PAM.
536 Prussian blue is used in poisoning by thallium.
537 In gastric lavage, tube is passed upto 50 cm mark
538 Oleander causes heart block
539 Puppe's rule is used for bullet injuries
540 Wredin's test detects changes in middle ear
541 Rain drop pigmentation of skin is seen is arsenic poisoning
542 Algor mortis refers to cooling of body
543 American Law Institute Test is related to criminal responsibility
544 Poroscopy was described by Locard
545 Burrowed servant doctrine is related to vicarious liability
546 Wax-drippings or bone pearls are due to thermal injuries
547 Lichtenberg's flowers refers to Filigree burns
548 Cutis anserina is due to exector pilae
549 Cupping' is a method of criminal abortion
550 Crocodile flash burns are due to antemortem electric burns
551 Hospital providing defective equipment or drugs is causing Corporate, negligence
Contusion collar is a proof of Gun shot entrance
552 In 'Commando punch', injury usually occur in neck
553 Blast lung is seen due to air explosion Thereapeutic orphans result due to
554 Thee name hatters shake is given because it is common in hat making industry
555 Trotter and Glesser's formulae are used for estimating stature
556 Rachiotomy saw is used to remove spinal cord
557 In cases of increased intracranial pressure, Kernhan's notch is seen on midbrain
558In artificial insemination of Donor without husband's consent, if the legal
presumption of legitimacy be rebutted, parental rights will be vested in mother
559 Agonal period is period between lethal occurrence and death
560 K master is responsible for the faults of his servants is known as Vicarious liability,
Biliard ball ricochet effect is seen in firearm injuries
561 Cavett test is used for determing blood alcohol
562 Dactylography was first used in India by Sir W. Herschel
563 Huffling is common solvent abuse
564 Sewer gas contains CO2, methane and H25
565 Stomach-bowel test' is used for knowing if infant respiration occurred
566 ‘Swallow tails’ are seen in lacerated wound
567 Most common type of abrasions of grazes
568 Osteometric board is used to estimate stature
569 Skull is square in Mongolians
570 In human head hair, bar bodies are found in hair follicles in a proportion of 29±
5% in females and 6+2% males
571 Curator bonis is person appointed to manage the affairs of mentally incompetent
572 "Crib deaths' are due to asphyxia
573 Commoriants' literally means dying together
574 For identification, palatoprints are taken from anterior part
575 Pink teeth are seen in death due to asphyxia
576 The order of appearance of rigor mortis follows Nysten's law
577 Postmortem lividity in a case of hanging is most prominent over lower extremities
578 Postmortem staining of a dead body lying undisturbed persists till it merges with
discolouration of putrefaction
579 Bleeding from nostrils, mouth and ears is relatively common in strangulation
580 Contre coup injury is seen in brain
581 In deep incised wounds, Langer's lines determine gaping
582 Mugging by definition is homicidal
583 Ligature mark in hanging is an example of imprint abrasion
584 Immediate cause of death in burns is neurogenic shock
585 Common cause of death in crush syndrome is acute renal failure
586 Abrasion is seen in injury with rifled arm
587 Spermin in semen is detected by Barberio test
588 The impotent quoad is impotent to a particular woman
589 Seminal fluid choline originates from Leydig cell
590 To establish diagnosis of feigned insanity, the person can be observed for a
maximum period of 30 days
591 Incessant sexual desire is known as satyriasis
592 Dhatura poisoning is due to intake of seeds
593 Mercury damages glomeruli and renal tubules
594 Cyanide poisoning kit contains amyl nitrite, Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate
595 Chromolachryorrhoea in organophosphorus poisoning is due to porphyrin
596 A green line in gums in copper poisoning is Clepten line
597 In Eonism, there is cross dressing
598 Garrotting is used as a method of execution in some countries
599 Tardieu spots are numberous in thymus, AV junction and conjunctiva
600 In body packer syndrome, person dies of abused drug overdose
601 In drowning, emphysema aquosum is seen in 80% cases
602 In embalming fluid, the concentration of formaldehyde and methyl alcohol are
40% and 10% respectively
603 Emmenagogues are used for criminal abortion
604 McNaughten rule has been included in India in section 84 of IPC
605 Hydrocution is another term for immersion syndrome
606 Diminished responsibility is a term used for borderline mental state
607 Minisatellite or stutters are terms used for DNA finger printing
608 Section 312 IPC is related to abortion
609 Sankya or somalkhar is a compound of lead
610 The compounds used for taking finger prints are French chalk, lead carbonate and mercury
611 'Central pocket loop' is a variety of Composite finger print
612 Reaction phenomenon is seen drowning
613 Alcoholic palimpsests are a type of blackout
614 Arsenic poisoning may lead to thrombocytopenia, leukemia and BM suppression
615 In arsenic poisoning, bands of opacity in finger nails are called Aldrich-Mees lines
616 Affiliation cases are related to paternity dispute
617 Kennedy phenomenon results due to surgical alteration
618 Incineration, dismembement and advanced putrefaction are methods of
effacement of identity
619 Moletova cocktail is a bomb
620 Medullary index is used to determine sex
621 Harrison and Gilroy test is used for firearm injury
622 After respiration, the weight of lungs increases by about 30 gm
623 The most characteristic defence injuries are those sustained during an attack by knife
624 Ploucquet's test is used to estimate live birth
625 Weight of pineal gland is 0.1 to 0.2 gm
626 In smothering, there is abrasion on the inner side of upper lip
627 Death during anaesthesia, D.C. to be written by anaesthesist
628 Privileged communication may be used by a doctor to blackmail his patients
629 Repeated intentional advertisement by a doctor in newspaper is professional
630 Oath taking in the court is court formality
631 The inquiry into the circumstances of death is inquest report
632 16 years age of female is an age to give valid consent for lawful sexual
633 Age of consent for medical examination is after eruption of III molar
634 Fragmentary medulla is seen in Negroid
635 For saliva, test used is alpha amylase test
636 Rule of Haase is used for estimation of foetal age
637 Wilson's classification is used to classify burns
638 Drugs interfering in blood grouping are barbiturate, aspirin and heparin
639 Phenol also retards putrefaction
640 In strangulation, neck muscle rupture is common
641 In fresh water poisoning, there may be hyperkalemia, hemolysis and ventricular
642 Brain stem death occurs in encephalomyelitis
643 Postmortem examination is done for all organ of the body
645 Historical milestones
646 Code of Hammurabi—oldest known medico-legal code.
647 Hippocrates (father of Medicine)
648 —discussed lethality of wounds
649 — formulated medical ethics.
650 Manu law's — medical ethics— many sexual matters — most scientifically
discussed. Justinian code
651 —regulated the practice of medicine & surgery.
652 — established the function of the medical expert for legal procedure.
653 Bartolomeo De Varignana — first medicolegal autopsy done by him in Italy.
654 Paulus Zacchias — written "medico-legal questions", questions Medico legalis."
Fortunato Fedele—written first book on Forensic medicne.
655 Orfil—considered as father of Modern Toxicology.
656 a. In the 18th century, study in legal Medicine as a subject was established by
appointing professorship in Germany.
657 b. In England Me Naughten's (who was aschizophrenic) rule has been established
to deal with legal matters in cases of insanity or like situations whatsoever
659 Sec 118 IPC—Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or
improsonment for life.
660 Sec 176, IPC—Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person
legally bound to give it.
661 Sec 177 IPC—Furnishing false information.
662 Sec 182 IPC—False information with intent to cause public servant to use lawful
power to the injury of another person. .--Sec 191 IPC—Giving false evidence
663 Sec 192 IPC—Fabricating false evidence.
664 Sec 193 IPC—Punishment for false evidence.
665 Sec 194 IPC—Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence.
666 Sec 195 IPC — Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure
conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment.
667 Sec 197 IPC—Issuing or signing false certificates.
668 Sec 201 IPC—Causing disappearance of evidence of offence, or giving false
information to screen offenders.
669 Sec 203 IPC—Giving false information respecting an offence committed.
670 Sec 204 IPC—Destruction of document to prevent its production as evidence.
671 Sec 284 IPC —Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substances.
672 Sec 304 IPC—Causing death by negligence.
673 Sec 309 IPC—Attempt to commit suicide
674 Sec 313 IPC—Causing miscarriage without woman's consent.
675 Sec 318 IPC—Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body.
676 Sec 319 IPC—Hurt.
677 Sec 320 IPC—Grievous hurt.
678 Sec 351 IPC—Assault.
679 Sec 362 IPC—Abduction.
680 Sec 375 IPC —Rape.
681 Sec 376 IPC—Punishment for rape.
682 Sec 377 IPC—Unnatural offences.
683 Sec 497 IPC—Adultery.
684 Sec 39 Cr. P.C—Every person, aware of the commission of or of the intention of any other person to commit any offence is punishable under I.P.C. shall forthwith give information to the nearest magistrate of police officer of such commission or
Sec 84 IPC—Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who at the time of
doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is incapable of knowing the nature of
the act or what he is doing is either wrong or contrary to law.
Confabulation—Pathological loss of memory, e.g. — Korsakoff s psychosis. — Early
stages of dementia.