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A 2003 meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials found that low-CHO diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to one year."
A 2007 JAMA study comparing the effectiveness of the Atkins low-carb diet to several other popular diets concluded, that premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight and experienced more favorable overall metabolic effects at 12 months.
A 2013 meta-analysis that included only randomized controlled trials with one year or more of follow-up found, "Individuals assigned to a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a low fat diet in the long term."
In 2013, after reviewing 16,000 studies, Sweden's Council on Health Technology Assessment concluded LCDs are more effective as a means to reduce weight than low-fat diets, over a short period of time (six months or less). However, the agency also concluded, over a longer span (12–24 months), no differences occur
A 2008 systematic review of randomized controlled studies that compared low-CHO diets to be better than low-fat/low-calorie diets regarding HDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure The authors of this review also found a higher rate of attrition in groups with low-fat diets, and concluded, "evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at six months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to one year", but they also called for more long-term studies.